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III. In-Service Training – Race and Policing


1. The Los Angeles Police Commission’s Inspector General conducted an audit or refresher training in the LAPD. Read the report, “P.O.S.T Refresher Training Audit,” (10/1/13)


2. “Perishable Skills” In-Service Training. The California Police Officers Standards and Training (POST program has a perishable skills in-service training requirement for all sworn officers. At least once every 2 years every officer must undergo at least 4 hours of training on arrest and control, driver training/awareness or driving simulator, and tactical firearms or force options simulator.

California, POST Standards, “Perishable Skills” Program.


1. In 2012 the U.S. Justice Department investigated the Portland, Oregon, police department for its handling of incidents involving mentally ill people.

Portland, OR, Department of Justice Findings Letter (2012).


2. The 2014 DOJ investigation of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, police department documented incidents of the improper handling of people have mental health crises. 

          Read the section of the DOJ report: albqmentalhealth

          Read the entire DOJ report on Albuquerque:  


1. The 2016 PERF report on “Guiding Principles on Use of Force” recommends that police departments make regular reports to the public on officer uses of force.

PERF, Guiding Principles on Use of Force, Regular Reports to the Public: perfpublicreports


2. The Philadelphia Police Department places its policy and data on  Officer-Involved Shootings on its web site.

Go to the OIS page here.


3. An increasing number of police departments place their policy and procedure manuals on their web sites. A few examples include:


Washington, DC:


4. In 2015 police departments in Texas began placing detailed information about officer-involved shootings on their web sites.

Dallas Police Department:

Austin Police Department:

Houston Police Department

Salt Lake City Police Department:

Phoenix Police Department:


The subject of the “organizational culture” or “police officer culture” is much discussed. But to date there is little research on the nature and impact of this culture.

1. For the Spokane, Washington, police department, the Use of Force Commission: Final Report  (2013) called for a “culture audit” of the department: spokane-culture-audit

Read the entire Spokane report:


2. The 2014 Justice Department report on the Albuquerque, New Mexico, police department examined the impact of the organization’s culture on officer use of force.

Read the section on organizational culture: Albuquerque, Department of Justice Findings Letter (2014): albq-org-culutre


Read the entire DOJ Findings Letter on Albuquerque:


3. The 2016 San Francisco, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Transparency, Accountability, and Fairness in Law Enforcement devotes Chapter 7 to “Culture,” with a discussion of how the police union shapes the culture of the department in adverse ways (pp. 137-149).

Read the full report:


4. The 2016 Chicago, Police Accountability Task Force report, Recommendations for Reform, contains a discussion of the culture of the Chicago Police Department.

        Read the report:


5. The 2015 report by Sue Rahr and Stephen K. Rice, From Warrior to Guardians: Recommitting American Police Culture to Democratic Ideals is the best discussion of what the police culture should be.


Pursuits by police officers, both motor vehicle and foot pursuits, are extremely dangers (to the suspect, pursuing officers, and bystanders). Restrictive policies have been found to effectively limit pursuits and reduce the dangers.


A. Motor Vehicle Pursuits

Geoffrey P. Alpert is the leading expert on police motor vehicle pursuits and the impact of pursuit policies: Read his NIJ report on pursuit policies: pursuits-alpertnij


B. Foot Pursuits

1. The 2003 report of the LASD Special Counsel was one of the first to document the dangers of police officer foot pursuits and to recommend a restrictive foot pursuit policy.

Read: Merrick Bobb, Special Counsel to the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department, 19th Semiannual Report (February 2003), pp. 5-31. footpursuiteslasd


2. The Philadelphia police department has a policy, adopted in 2013, that reflects the best current thinking on the control of foot pursuits by police officers.

Philadelphia, Foot Pursuit Policy (2013): philadfootpursuitpolicy